Audit Committee Charter

1. Purpose

The primary functions of the Audit Committee are to assist the Board of Directors in fulfilling its oversight responsibilities with respect to: (i) the Corporation's systems of internal controls regarding finance, accounting, legal compliance and ethical behavior; (ii) the Corporation's auditing, accounting and financial reporting processes generally; (iii) the Corporation's financial statements and other financial information provided by the Corporation to its stockholders, the public and others; (iv) the Corporation's compliance with legal and regulatory requirements; and (v) the performance of the Corporation's Finance Department and independent auditors. Consistent with these functions, the Committee will encourage continuous improvement of, and foster adherence to, the Corporation's policies, procedures and practices at all levels.

Although the Committee has the powers and responsibilities set forth in this Charter, the role of the Committee is oversight. The members of the Committee are not full-time employees of the Corporation and may or may not be accountants or auditors by profession or experts in the fields of accounting or auditing and, in any event, do not serve in such capacity. Consequently, it is not the duty of the Committee to conduct audits or to determine that the Corporation's financial statements and disclosures are complete and accurate and are in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and applicable rules and regulations. These are the responsibilities of Management and the independent auditors.

2. Organization

The Audit Committee shall be comprised of three or more directors as determined by the Board of Directors, each of whom shall satisfy the independence, financial literacy and experience requirements of Section 10A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and any other regulatory requirements. At least one member of the Audit Committee will have accounting or related financial management expertise and will qualify as a financial expert under the Securities Exchange Commission’s regulations.

Committee and Director’s fees are the only compensation an Audit Committee member may receive from ZIM. No member of the Audit Committee may serve simultaneously on the audit committee of more than three public companies. 

The Audit Committee shall meet four times per year on a quarterly basis, or more frequently as circumstances require. The Committee shall require members of Management, the Finance Department, the independent auditors and others to attend meetings and to provide pertinent information, as necessary. Minutes will be taken at each meeting and will maintain by the Secretary of the Corporation.

3. Authority and Responsibilities

In recognition of the fact that the Corporation's independent auditors are ultimately accountable to the Audit Committee, the Committee shall have the sole authority and responsibility to select, evaluate, and, where appropriate and permitted by law, replace the independent auditors or nominate the independent auditors for shareholder approval. The Committee shall approve all audit engagement fees and terms and all non-audit engagements with the independent auditors. The Committee shall consult with Management but shall not delegate these responsibilities.

To fulfill its responsibilities and duties, the Audit Committee shall:

With respect to the independent auditors:

  1. Be directly responsible for the appointment, compensation and oversight of the work of the independent auditors (including resolution of any disagreements between Management and the independent auditors regarding financial reporting) for the purpose of preparing its audit report or related work.
  2. Have the sole authority to review in advance, and grant any appropriate pre-approvals of, (i) all auditing services to be provided by the independent auditors and (ii) all non-audit services to be provided by the independent auditors as permitted by Section 10A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and (iii) connection therewith to approve all fees and other terms of engagement. The Committee shall also review and approve disclosures required to be included in Securities and Exchange Commission periodic reports filed under Section 13(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with respect to non-audit services. 
  3. Review the performance of the Corporation's independent auditors on at least an annual basis.
  4. On an annual basis, review and discuss with the independent auditors all relationships the independent auditors have with the Corporation in order to evaluate the independent auditors' continued independence. The Committee: (i) shall ensure that the independent auditors submit to the Committee on an annual basis a written statement (consistent with Independent Standards Board Standards No. 1) delineating all relationships and services that may impact the objectivity and independence of the independent auditors; (ii) shall discuss with the independent auditors any disclosed relationship or services that may impact the objectivity and independence of the independent auditors; and (iii) shall satisfy itself as to the independent auditors' independence.
  5. At least annually, obtain and review an annual report from the independent auditors describing (i) the independent auditors' internal quality control procedures and (ii) any material issues raised by the most recent internal quality control review, or peer review, of the independent auditors, or by any inquiry or investigation by governmental or professional authorities, within the preceding five years, respecting one or more independent audits carried out by the independent auditors, and any steps taken to deal with any such issues.
  6. Confirm that the lead audit partner, or the lead audit partner responsible for reviewing the audit, for the Corporation's independent auditors has not performed audit services for the Corporation for each of the five previous fiscal years.
  7. Review all reports required to be submitted by the independent auditors to the Committee under Section 10A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
  8. Review, based upon the recommendation of the independent auditors and the Finance Department, the scope and plan of the work to be done by the independent auditors for each fiscal year.

With respect to financial statements:

  • Review and discuss with Management, the Finance Department and the independent auditors the Corporation's quarterly financial statements (including disclosures made in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" and the independent auditors' review of the quarterly financial statements) prior to submission to the Board of Directors, stockholders, any governmental body, any stock exchange or the public.
  • Review and discuss: (i) with Management, the Finance Department and the independent auditors the Corporation's annual audited financial statements (including disclosures made in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations").
  • Discuss with the independent auditors the matters required to be discussed by Statement on Auditing Standards No. 61, as amended, relating to the conduct of the audit.
  • Recommend to the Board of Directors, if appropriate, that the Corporation's annual audited financial statements be included in the Corporation's annual report on Form 10-K for filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.
  • Prepare the report required by the Securities and Exchange Commission to be included in the Corporation's annual proxy statement and any other Committee reports required by applicable securities laws or stock exchange listing requirements or rules.
  • Periodic and Annual Reviews:

    1. Periodically review separately with each of Management, the independent auditors and the Finance Department (i) any significant disagreement between Management and the independent auditors or the Finance Department in connection with the preparation of the financial statements, (ii) any difficulties encountered during the course of the audit (including any restrictions on the scope of work or access to required information), and (iii) Management's response to each.
    2. Periodically discuss with the independent auditors, without Management being present, (i) their judgments about the quality, appropriateness, and acceptability of the Corporation's accounting principles and financial disclosure practices, as applied in its financial reporting, and (ii) the completeness and accuracy of the Corporation's financial statements.
    3. Consider and approve, if appropriate, significant changes to the Corporation's accounting principles and financial disclosure practices as suggested by the independent auditors, Management or the Finance Department. Review with the independent auditors, Management and the Finance Department, at appropriate intervals, the extent to which any changes or improvements in accounting or financial practices, as approved by the Committee, have been implemented.
    4. Review with Management, the independent auditors, the Finance Department and the Corporation's counsel, as appropriate, any legal, regulatory or compliance matters that could have a significant impact on the Corporation's financial statements, including significant changes in accounting standards or rules as promulgated by the Financial Accounting Standards Board, the Securities and Exchange Commission or other regulatory authorities with relevant jurisdiction.
    5. Obtain and review an annual report from Management relating to the accounting principles used in preparation of the Corporation's financial statements (including those policies for which Management is required to exercise discretion or judgments regarding the implementation thereof).

    Discussions with Management:

    1. Review and discuss with Management the Corporation's earnings press releases (including the use of "pro forma" or "adjusted" non-GAAP information) as well as financial information and earnings guidance provided to analysts and rating agencies.
    2. Review and discuss with Management all material off-balance sheet transactions, arrangements, obligations (including contingent obligations) and other relationships of the Corporation with unconsolidated entities or other persons, that may have a material current of future effect on financial condition, changes in financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital resources, capital reserves or significant components of revenues or expenses.
    3. Inquire about the application of the Corporation's accounting policies and its consistency from period to period, and the compatibility of these accounting policies with generally accepted accounting principles, and (where appropriate) the Corporation's provisions for future occurrences which may have a material impact on the financial statements of the Corporation.
    4. Review and discuss with Management (i) the Corporation's major financial risk exposures and the steps Management has taken to monitor and control such exposures (including Management's risk assessment and risk management policies), and (ii) the program that Management has established to monitor compliance with its code of business ethics and conduct for directors, officers and employees.
    5. Review and discuss with Management all disclosures made by the Corporation concerning any material changes in the financial condition or operations of the Corporation.
    6. Obtain explanations from Management for unusual variances in the Corporation's annual financial statements from year to year, and review annually the independent auditors' letter of the recommendations to Management and Management's response.

    With respect to the internal audit function and internal controls:

    1. Review, based upon the recommendation of the independent auditors and the Chief Financial Officer, the scope and plan of the work to be done by the Finance Department.
    2. Review on an annual basis the performance of the Finance Department.
    3. In consultation with the independent auditors and the Finance Department, (a) review the adequacy of the Corporation's internal control structure and system, and the procedures designed to insure compliance with laws and regulations, and (b) discuss the responsibilities, budget and staffing needs of the Finance Department.
    4. Establish procedures for (i) the receipt, retention and treatment of complaints received by the Corporation regarding accounting, internal accounting controls or auditing matters, and (ii) the confidential, anonymous submission by employees of the Corporation of concerns regarding questionable accounting or auditing matters.

    Other:

    1. Review and approve all related-party transactions.
    2. Review and approve (i) any change or waiver in the Corporation's Code of Business Conduct and Code of Ethics for World-wide Financial Officers, and (ii) any disclosure made on Form 8-K regarding such change or waiver.
    3. Establish the policy for the Corporation's hiring of employees or former employees of the independent auditors who were engaged on the Corporation's account.
    4. Review any Management decision to seek a second opinion from independent auditors other than the Corporation's regular independent auditors with respect to any significant accounting issue.
    5. Review and reassess the adequacy of this Charter annually and recommend to the Board any changes the Committee deems appropriate.
    6. The Committee shall conduct an annual performance evaluation of itself.
    7. Perform any other activities consistent with this Charter, the Corporation's By-laws and governing law as the Committee or the Board deems necessary or appropriate.
    8. This Charter will be made available on the Corporation's website at "www.zim.biz".

    4. Resources

    The Audit Committee shall have the authority to retain independent legal, accounting and other consultants to advise the Committee. The Committee may request any officer or employee of the Corporation or the Corporation's outside counsel or independent auditors to attend a meeting of the Committee or to meet with any members of, or consultants to, the Committee.

    The Committee shall determine the extent of funding necessary for payment of compensation to the independent auditors for purpose of rendering or issuing the annual audit report and to any independent legal, accounting and other consultants retained to advise the Committee.